Glossary

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Amélioration Méthodologique pour l’Innovation Scientifique [Methodological improvement for scientific innovation] (CIRAD-AMIS)

CIRAD : Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement [Centre for international cooperation for the development of agronomical research]
AMIS : Amélioration Méthodologique pour l’Innovation Scientifique [Methodological improvement for scientific innovation]

Annual crops department of the Centre for international cooperation for the development of agronomical research (CIRAD-CA)

CIRAD : Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement [Centre for international cooperation for the development of agronomical research] - CA : Cultures Annuelles [Annual crops]

Canadian Space Agency (CSA)

Canadian Space Agency

Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement [Centre for international cooperation for the development of agronomical research] (CIRAD)

Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement [Centre for international cooperation for the development of agronomical research]

Centre Européen de Recherche Nucléaire (CERN)

European organization for nuclear research

Centre National d'Eudes Spatiales (CNES)

CNES is the French Space Agency

Centre Technique Inter-professionnel de la Canne et du Sucre [Inter-professionnal technical centre for sugar cane and sugar] (CTICS)

Centre Technique Inter-professionnel de la Canne et du Sucre [Inter-professionnal technical centre for sugar cane and sugar]

Channel Partner (CP)

The Channel partners are companies committed to long-term marketing of Spot images in exchange for exclusive rights to exploit a territory and/or a given market.
They are your guarantee of quality, long-lasting 'neighbourhood' service.

Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE)

The Argentinean space agency

Departmental Direction for Agriculture and Forestry (DDAF)

DDAFF : Direction Départementale de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt [Departmental Direction for Agriculture and Forestry]

Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

Both digital terrain models (DTM) and digital elevation models (DEM) are files containing the altitudes of a region. Each point in the grid (every 20 m, for example) is attributed its altitude. The models are developed using stereopair imaging in particular, and are of great help in surveillance and monitoring operations, impact studies or choosing the best place to set up cellular phone networks.
A DTM represents the theoretical surface on the ground while a DEM represents the theoretical surface of high points (such as tree tops).

Digital Terrain Model (DTM)

Both digital terrain models (DTM) and digital elevation models (DEM) are files containing the altitudes of a region. Each point in the grid (every 20 m, for example) is attributed its altitude. The models are developed using stereopair imaging in particular, and are of great help in surveillance and monitoring operations, impact studies or choosing the best place to set up cellular phone networks.
A DTM represents the theoretical surface on the ground while a DEM represents the theoretical surface of high points (such as tree tops).

Direct Receiving Station (DRS)

Direct Receiving Station

Easy Link to Spot (ELS)

Easy Link to Spot

European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS)

European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company

European Space Agency (ESA)

European Space Agency’s job is to draw up the European space programme and carry it through. The Agency’s projects are designed to find out more about the Earth, its immediate space environment, the solar system and the Universe, as well as to develop satellite-based technologies and services, and to promote European industries. ESA also works closely with space organisations outside Europe.
ESA has 17 Member States.

Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

Maritime law: area between the territorial sea and the high sea where the riparian State has sovereign rights over the exploration and exploitation of resources in the sea, on the seabed or in its subsoil.
Note: The consensus established during the third UN conference on the law of the sea allows States to create exclusive economic zones up to 200 nautical miles from the baselines.
[CILF. - Commission des sciences de l'océan. - 1979].

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

A United Nations organization

Geographic TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)

An extension of TIFF used to transmit geographic information relating to the image (position, orientation, resolution and projection)

Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) will be deployed between 2005 and 2015 by GEO, the intergovernmental Group for Earth Observation, which numbers 55 nations and 30 international organizations. The purpose of GEOSS is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system, in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth, increase understanding of its climate and environment, and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system, in particular through a system to provide early warning of natural disasters like famines, epidemics and tsunamis.

Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES)

Global Monitoring for Environment and Security

High Resolution Geometric (HRG)

The two HRG instruments aboard SPOT 5 are the main imaging instruments. They provide panchromatic (black and white) imagery at a resolution of 2.5 or 5 metres, multispectral (colour) imagery at a resolution of 10 metres and med-infrared imagery at a resolution of 20 metres.

High Resolution Stereoscopic (HRS)

The HRS imaging instrument aboard SPOT 5 provides stereopair images centred on the ground track. Stereopairs are acquired simultaneously and used to produce very accurate DEMs.

High Resolution Visible (HRV)

The HRV imaging instruments are the main instruments aboard SPOT 1 to 3. There are two per satellite, used to provide panchromatic images at a resolution of 10 metres and multispectral (colour) images at a resolution of 20 metres.

High Resolution Visible Infra Red (HRVIR)

The HRVIR imaging instruments are the main instruments aboard SPOT 4. There are two per satellite, used to provide monospectral images at a resolution of 10 metres, multispectral (colour) and med-infrared images at a resolution of 20 metres.

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)

Indian Space Research Organization

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)

The IRD (Institute for Research and Development) is a French public science and technology research institute under the joint authority of the French ministries in charge of research and overseas development.

Institut Géographique National (IGN)

French National Geographic Institute

Interferometry

Each point of a radar image gives amplitude and phase information depending on the distance between the sensor and the observed point. An interferogram shows the phase difference between two images, highlighting ground movements of just a few millimetres between acquisitions.
The resulting ground deformation maps have many applications, including the study and monitoring of volcanoes, earthquakes and landslides.

Interoperability

Interoperability describes the ability of independent, heterogeneous systems to collaborate in the most harmonious way possible in order to exchange or deliver information to users in a simple and efficient manner. This is generally achieved through the adoption of common standards.

Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute (MSIRI)

Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI)

NDVI = (NIR — VIS)/(NIR + VIS) with NIR : Near InfraRed and VIS : visible

Orthoimage

SPOT orthoimages may be computed into different projections. Orthoimages can be directly overlaid on the topographic map and used as a base map.

Pixel

A two-dimensional set of pixels forms the geometric grid on which the image is represented.

Precision farming

Precision farming consists in adjusting crop practices while taking the variability within plots or between plots into account.
It can be used to optimise management of the plot in terms of:
agronomy (by adjusting crop practices very precisely to meet the real needs of the plant to satisfy needs for nitrogen),
environment (by reducing expectations related to farming activity, by limiting excess run-off of nitrogen), economic (by increasing the price paid for the farm product by improving the quality obtained through better advice on inputs).
Moreover, precision agriculture offers farmers much information which could become a true farm memory for help with decision making in order to meet the needs for traceability.

Reference3D

Reference3D is a geocoded, worldwide data base, made up of 3 information layers:- DEM (digital elevation model), - HRS orthoimages, -Quality and traceability data.

Resampling

The values of output pixels are obtained by interpolation based on the values of input pixels combined with the calculated distortion. The most commonly used resampling techniques are nearest-neighbour interpolation, bilinear interpolation and cubic convolution.

Satellite image map

Map based on a satellite image (mosaic of several raw SPOT scenes after stringent geometric correction), on which additional information is overlaid. An imagemap usually complies with standard map sizes. Therefore it is only offered for level 2B or “ortho” products in the SPOTView range.

Scene

A SPOT scene is part of the Earth seen by one of the onboard instruments, divided up into elementary scenes of:
- 24,000 lines for 2.5 m products
- 12,000 lines for 5 m products
- 6,000 lines for 10 m products
- 3,000 lines for 20 m products

A SPOT scene covers a surface area around 60 km by 60 to 80 km, depending on the viewing angle.

Sensor

Instrument that gathers the radiative energy (i.e. natural radiation reflectance levels) from a scene and converts it into a measurable electric signal corresponding to the original amount of radiation received.

Spatial resolution

Map based on a satellite image (mosaic of several raw SPOT scenes after stringent geometric correction), on which additional information is overlaid. An imagemap usually complies with standard map sizes. Therefore it is only offered for level 2B or “ortho” products in the SPOTView range.

Supermode

Supermode is a special image acquisition technique that uses two black and white images taken simultaneously with a 5-metre resolution to produce a single image with a 2.5-metre resolution.

System Integrated Programming (SIP)

Spot Image programmes SPOT centrally, accepting requests from all direct receiving stations and other customers. It determines the optimal use of satellite resources depending on the weather (updated every 24 hours), the order in which requests arrive and the priorities attributed.

Systèmes d'Information Géographique pour les Besoins en Environnement et Aménagement (SIGbea)

Geographic Information Systems for environment and land planning and managment

Systems & Defence Electronics

Part of EADS

Thematic map

A map based on satellite imagery depicting one or more specific themes or types of data, e.g. land use. The different features are assigned to categories (industrial estates, urban areas, hydrological networks etc.). It is the user that determines the level of detail required.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNDP)

United Nations Environment Programme

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

United Nations Environment Programme

United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)

United Nations Institute for Training and Research
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